Monday 05th of December 2016 07:32:09 PM



   WDG's CSS Reference

   WDG's Copyright and Trademark Information

   About the Web Design Group

   Style Sheets Now!

   CSS Quick Tutorial

   CSS Structure and Rules


   Pseudo-classes and Pseudo-elements

   Cascading Order

   CSS1 Units

   CSS Properties

   Linking Style Sheets to HTML

   Style Sheet Dependence

   CSS References

   Syntax Used in CSS Properties

   Font Family

   Font Style

   Font Variant

   Font Weight

   Font Size



   Background Color

   Background Image

   Background Repeat

   Background Attachment

   Background Position


   Word Spacing

   Letter Spacing

   Text Decoration

   Vertical Alignment

   Text Transformation

   Text Alignment

   Text Indentation

   Line Height

   Top Margin

   Right Margin

   Bottom Margin

   Left Margin


   Top Padding

   Right Padding

There's another side to margins: the negative side. That's right, it's possible to set negative values for margins. This will have some interesting effects, assuming that a user agent supports negative margins at all.


User agents are not, according to the CSS1 specification, required to fully support negative margins, using the phrase,

   Bottom Padding

   Left Padding


   Top Border Width

   Right Border Width

   Bottom Border Width

   Left Border Width

   Border Width

   Border Color

   Border Style

   Top Border

   Right Border

   Bottom Border

   Left Border








   List Style Type

   List Style Image

   List Style Position

   List Style

   Arnoud "Galactus" Engelfriet

   Ian Butler

   Tina Marie Holmboe

   Nick Kew

   HTML 3.2



   CSS Positioning

   Fonts and the Web


   Printing support



   MSIE 3

   Navigator 4.0



   Nick Kew

   BODY element

   HR - horizontal rule

   DD - definition



   LINK element

   HEAD element

   TITLE element


   DFN - definition

   DIV - logical division


   IMG - images

   INPUT element


   A - anchor element

correspondingly taller, but since we're declared line-height: 1px for the "S", the actual inline box is so small that it has almost no effect on the height of the line box. While the title shown in Figure 11-16 may not precisely match the title in Figure 11-14, they're very close to each other.

So, put together, here's the entire style sheet:

BODY {color: black; background: white;}
P {font-family: Times,serif; text-align: justify; text-indent: 6em;}

How can XML help app servers do their work? As you can see in Figure 2, in order for the app server to harvest information from such a rich variety of sources, there must be some common ground between all of these sources (each of which might be running on a different hardware and software system). This common ground is the information which flows throughout the entire system, regardless of what source the information comes from. CORBA is an example of tying disparate systems together based on the interfaces that certain remote objects implement. XML does the same thing for data. It allows these disparate systems to share information in a medium that consists only of pure information (and the structural relationships that exist inside of that information). By taking the lowest common denominator approach by using plain text to encode data, XML allows these systems to talk with each other without requiring any special binary information format converters or other service layers to translate between binary formats (for encoding data). Also, since HTTP already supports transmission of plain text, it is completely natural to move XML around using the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol through firewalls and disparate networks. This is shown in Figure 3. XML can be transmitted between systems using one of the most prevalent protocols in use today, Hypertext Transfer Protocol or HTTP 1.1 (which is the protocol of the web).

App server developers are not restricted to using HTTP, they can transmit and recieve XML information using simple remote CORBA objects and RMI objects. The key is that by using XML, it makes these remote services or objects easier to build. And, by sticking with XML, any one of these technologies can be used in your design of your app server. You can use whatever technology is most appropriate to getting the job done, knowing that all the information flows as XML and can be processed by any part of the system. The reason Java object serialization did not achieve this is because it encodes object data to a binary format that is dependent on too many things (like the JVM version, and the existence of classes when things are deserialized, etc). XML is not limited by any of these restrictions (or problems), which makes it much easier to create systems that allow XML information to flow between different subsystems. Also by relying only on the data, large portions of the system can be replaced with better or different implementations for future-readiness.

App servers traditionally give their client apps access to information in remote databases, remote file systems, remote object repositories, remote web resources, and even other app servers. All these information sources don't even need to reside on the machine that hosts the app server. These remote resources may be on other machines on the Intranet or the Internet. Using Java and XML, RMI, JDBC, CORBA, JNDI, Servlet and Swing, you can create app servers that can integrate all kinds of remote and local information resources, and client apps that allow you to remotely or locally access this information from the app server.